Level III Course Outline

Base Oil Fundamentals

  • How mineral base oil groups compare on 9 criteria
  • How synthetic oils compare to mineral oils
  • Advantages and disadvantages of common synthetic lubricants
  • How wear and friction control additives work
  • The role of fatty acids, AW and EP lubrication films

Understanding and Analyzing Machine Wear

  • 16 factors that cause changes in wear debris concentrations
  • Effects of water on bearings
  • 31 factors leading to abnormal engine wear
  • How to enhance the detection of abnormal wear particle trends
  • One simple technique to help you detect faults earlier
  • Review of technologies used to analyze wear debris
  • Particle size sensitivities of wear particle technologies
  • Comparison of laboratory emission spectrometers
  • How wear particle size influences spectrometric analysis
  • How to determine the severity of a wear problem
  • How to evaluate lock-step trends
  • How to normalize for makeup oil
  • Potential sources of metals in oil
  • Best applications for elemental analysis of wear metals
  • Advantages and disadvantages of analytical ferrography
  • How filtergrams compare to ferrograms
  • How to characterize particle composition by visual inspection
  • Shape features of common wear particles
  • Common machine wear mechanisms and how to identify them
  • 11 sources of spherical wear particles and how to identify them
  • How to recognize wear zones in gearing

Integrating Oil Analysis with Vibration Analysis

  • Failure detection zones of oil versus vibration analysis
  • Where oil and vibration analysis overlap
  • Strengths and weaknesses of oil and vibration analysis on detecting 13 machine problems
  • Combining vibration with wear debris analysis for bearing failure analysis

Fluid Properties Analysis

  • How viscosity index impacts an oils ability to lubricate
  • Best practices for onsite viscosity analysis
  • 4 root causes of oxidation and why they are important
  • The role of antioxidants and how they work
  • 5 indicators of oil oxidation
  • How to measure oxidation stability
  • How acid numbers trend with different types of oils
  • Machine diagnostics using neutralization numbers
  • Detecting base oil oxidation with FTIR
  • Strengths and weaknesses of FTIR
  • How sludge and varnish are formed and how to detect
  • Recommendations for a new lubricant testing plan

Additive Depletion

  • 14 ways additives are depleted from oil
  • How to detect depletion of 10 common additives
  • How to find additive date on an oil analysis report

Contamination Analysis

  • 5 ways to count and size particles
  • Monitoring dust and dirt contamination by elemental analysis
  • Tests for high soot load and fuel contamination
  • How defoamants work and how they are depleted
  • 16 water ingression sources
  • 6 additives that are attacked by water contamination and results of each
  • Machine effects of water-related problems
  • Review of water detection technologies
  • How to detect glycol in crankcase oil

Grease Analysis

  • Methods for sampling grease
  • Common used grease tests and what they measure
  • 7 grease performance concerns and how to test
  • How grease properties change due to incompatible mixtures

Onsite Oil Analysis Options

  • How to integrate onsite with offsite oil analysis
  • How to prepare a filter patch for particle contamination assessment
  • Review of onsite viscometry, FTIR and particle counter options
  • Small, medium and large budgets for an onsite lab: what to buy
  • Tips for designing an onsite lab space

Designing an Oil Analysis Program

  • How to select candidate machines for oil analysis
  • 4 steps to optimizing interval-based oil changes
  • Considerations for condition-based oil changes
  • Factors influencing oil sampling frequencies
  • Tips on working with an offsite lab
  • 5 applications for goal-based limits
  • How aging limits signal the approaching end of useful oil life
  • 4 applications for rate-of-change limits
  • Interpreting elemental trends using level limits

Cost Benefit Analysis

  • 7 cost-saving areas for quantifying benefits
  • Estimating the value of a predictive maintenance “save”
  • Estimating annual savings per machine
  • 3 project evaluation decision tools
  • How to track your program: lubrication KPI’s

World-class Maintenance Philosophies

  • Five prevailing features of world-class maintenance programs

  • The 80:20 rule for maintenance

  • Three successful elements of a CBM program

Introduction to Machinery Lubrication

  • Oil formulation and its importance in effective machinery lubrication

  • Six key functions of lubricating oils

  • Three primary lubrication regimes

  • Introduction to base oils and additives

  • Choosing the correct base-stock

  • Conditions that dictate use of synthetic oils

  • Antioxidant additives and their role in oil life

  • Dispersants and detergents – the key to controlling soot

  • Controlling wear with additive chemistry

Oil Analysis Fundamentals

  • Interpreting the language your oil is speaking

  • Prevailing myths about oil analysis

  • Common applications for sampling and analysis

  • Three categories of oil analysis

Oil Sampling – The Very Best Practices

  • 11 elements of a successful oil analysis program

  • How clean should sample bottles be?

  • How to find the best sampling locations

  • Sampling valves and hardware recommendations

  • A quick method for optimizing sampling intervals

  • The importance of primary and secondary sampling points

  • How to properly sample circulating systems

  • Safe, effective high-pressure sampling from hydraulic systems

  • Best practices for sampling splash-, collar-, and ring-lubricated systems

Fluid Properties Analysis

  • Four common root causes of oil degradation

  • Recognizing and controlling oil oxidation

  • Monitoring lubricant degradation using acid number

  • Monitoring lubricant health using FTIR

  • Determining oil life using RPVOT

  • Recognizing and controlling thermal failure

  • How to recognize additive depletion or degradation

  • Using paper chromatography (blotter spot test) to detect additive and base oil degradation

  • Four ways to detect the addition of wrong oil

Contamination Control and Proactive Maintenance

  • Seven common contaminants

  • Oil cleanliness and oil life extension benefits

  • Using the ISO Solid Contamination Code

  • Proactive maintenance in three easy steps

  • Case studies for proactive maintenance

  • Oil filter and breather recommendations

  • Portable filtration carts – three ways to use them

  • Setting targets for oil cleanliness

  • Detecting and controlling moisture contamination

  • Selecting moisture removal/filtration methods

  • The effects of heat on lubricants

  • Controlling air entrainment and foam

  • Glycol contamination

  • Dealing with soot

  • Understanding fuel contamination

Fault Detection and Wear Particle Analysis

  • How wear metals are measured using RDE and ICP spectrometers

  • Measuring larger particles with Rotrode Filter spectroscopy

  • Using ferrous density to determine the severity of a wear problem

  • Using analytical ferrography for advanced fault detection

  • Using ferrography for root cause analysis

  • Four primary sources of friction in lubricated machinery

  • The 10 wear mechanisms that reduce machine life

  • The most common wear modes in plain, rolling element, and thrust bearings

  • Understanding gear wear

  • Understanding wear in hydraulic systems

Instrument Free On-site Tests

  • How to inspect vents and breathers

  • Tips for effective sight glass inspection

  • Getting valuable information from used filters

  • Inspecting reservoirs for clues about lube trouble

  • Scenting lubricants to find problems

  • Getting visual clues from the oil sample before mailing it out

  • Getting into particle analysis for under $100

  • Turn your kitchen blender into a test for demulsibility and foam tendency

  • Screening for water with a simple hot plate

  • How an unwanted business card can reveal oil degradation

Interactive Case Studies Workshop

  • Individual and group participation in problem-solving exercises

  • Exercises in how to read an oil analysis report