by Jim Fitch, Noria Corporation
Machines fail for a reason. They’re not supposed to wear out. Humans are at the root of the vast majority of these failures. It’s also humans that can intervene and restore plants to healthy and sustained operation. This is not an imaginary concept but rather a living reality in a growing number of companies today.
Machine failure can deliver an important lesson on future prevention and remediation. Fortunately, there have been countless investigations into failure causes across wide-ranging machine types and applications. This learning has enabled organizations to greatly enhance reliability but only when machine and programmatic modifications were applied. Lubrication and reliability training programs are designed to teach this collective knowledge about failure prevention. Still, knowing is not the same thing as doing.
The Hard Currency of Lubrication-Enabled Reliability
Lubrication-enabled reliability (LER) relates to all activities that improve reliability through tactical changes in the use and application of lubricants. LER offers specific benefits and opportunities that don’t exist with alternative reliability strategies. Yet, most companies seem to be in denial when it comes to lubrication. They see themselves as being lubrication responsible – a misguided belief that they are already doing an adequate job with lubrication. It’s like healthy living through a proper diet. It’s not a matter of just eating but rather the discipline of eating the right foods every single day.
The same applies to lubrication. It’s not about blindly going through the same old tasks of lubricating your machines. This will not enhance reliability. Instead, LER is about reinventing how lubrication is done. This fact is learned from hundreds of published case studies on lubrication. It’s very much like an untapped vein of gold that lies just below the surface. It’s near at hand but difficult to see.
Fundamentally, LER has to be a business decision. Managers face wide-ranging opportunities when it comes to change and investment. Sound business judgment needs to be applied in deciding what to change next.
Conversely, the cost of repairing or replacing a failed machine (plus the associated lost production) is not a business decision that is carefully weighed against all options. It is outside of the control and judgment of management. The decision is driven entirely by the machine and its failure. The wisest thing managers can do at that point is to invest in a skillfully performed root cause analysis (RCA) followed by the prescribed changes needed to prevent reoccurrence.
LER is an initiative taken prior to failure, ideally when there is considerable remaining useful life. The following are three critical factors that should be considered in making reliability investments such as LER:
1. Find Untapped Opportunities That Yield Deep Benefits
The investment must have the potential to yield deep, rich benefits that outstrip the potential cost and risk. It can’t be simply a mild chipping away at maintenance costs but rather a bona-fide homerun opportunity.
The magnitude of the opportunity is influenced by the current state of reliability (or unreliability). For instance, a company’s approach may be just to continue reactive maintenance using the 4-R treatment – rapid component replacement, repair, removal or rebuild. In such cases, the opportunity is rich; the worse things are, the better the opportunity for change.
LER doesn’t respond to failure but aspires to address the root cause. What is in constant contact with the machine that over time influences the rate of wear and corrosion? It is the lubricant. What, if changed, is best able to slow down that rate of wear and corrosion? Again, it’s the lubricant. While there are other influencing factors, lubrication is the greatest common denominator.
As a case in point, see Figure 1. Fifty-three percent of all problems reported by this unnamed company were lubrication related. In addition, those that were not lubrication related (e.g., bearing defects, gear defects, unbalance, misalignment, etc.) would have been revealed by simply analyzing the lubricant (wear debris analysis).
Figure 2 is a plant-wide tabulation of the causes of mechanical failure reported by another company. The incorrect choice and usage of lubricants totaled 43 percent.
The Pareto Principle teaches us that the greatest yield from programmatic changes occurs when we focus on the 20 percent of the causes (critical few) that are responsible for 80 percent of the occurrences of failure.
Figure 2 Ref. AIMAN (Italian Association of Maintenance Engineers)
and IRI (International Research Institute) in conjunction with SKF
2. Target Conditions that can be Changed and Controlled
Unarguably, there is much that’s outside the realm of control for most reliability and maintenance teams. For instance, we can’t inherently know which bearings and gearboxes have design and manufacturing defects. However, we can control the quality of the job we do in mounting, fitting and installing machines/components. From that point forward, it’s about wellness management – careful and continuous nurturing of machine health.
Fortunately, lubrication-enabled reliability is not high science. Any maintenance organization can accomplish it with proper training, planning and deployment. Much of it is behavior based and just good old common sense. It’s about making modifications of people, machines, procedures, lubricants and metrics.
In the last issue of Machinery Lubrication, I introduced the concept of the Optimum Reference State (ORS). The ORS is a state of preparedness and condition readiness that enables lubrication excellence. It gives the machine and its work environment “reliability DNA” as it relates to lubrication. The enabling attributes of the ORS needed to achieve LER and lubrication excellence are:
- People Preparedness. People are trained to modern lubrication skill standards and have certified competencies.
- Machine Preparedness. Machines have the necessary design and accouterments for quality inspection, lubrication, contamination control, oil sampling, etc.
- Precision Lubricants. Lubricants are correctly selected across key physical, chemical and performance properties, including base oil, viscosity, additives, film strength, oxidation stability, etc.
- Precision Lubrication. Lubrication procedures, frequencies, amounts, locations, etc., are precisely designed to achieve the reliability objectives.
- Oil Analysis. This includes optimal selection of the oil analysis lab, test slate, sampling frequency, alarm limits, troubleshooting rationale, etc.
These ORS attributes are simple, fundamental changes that are within a plant’s ability to modify and manage. They are definable, measurable, verifiable and controllable.
3. Choose Strategies that Offer Low, Manageable Risks
Stop fixing the machine and start fixing what causes the failure. This is proactive maintenance. Of course, it is hard to invest in something that is not yet broken. People are quick to respond to crisis but procrastinate to make changes when plants seem to be running reliably. Lifestyle changes sometimes require the jolt presented by a good health scare. Crisis puts focus on reliability. Change by aspiration alone is far rarer.
So what’s the worst that can happen? Clean, dry and cool lubricants don’t induce machine failure. The real risk is not in miscalculating the benefits from LER but rather in a botched or incomplete deployment. We’ve seen many examples of this in the past, and sadly it is a common outcome by those who have pursued LER. This can be the result of:
- Caving into pressure from old-timers who prefer business as usual
- Poor deployment (attempting to save money by cutting corners)
- Incomplete deployment and follow-through (getting halfway done and then becoming distracted by other initiatives)
- Lack of planning and preparation
- Lack of measurement and control (drifting back due to poor sustainability)
- Personnel changes (particularly the revolving door of leadership)
To de-risk implementation, you need leaders to champion the effort, good communication to stakeholders, adequate financial investment, and lots of monitoring and measurement (during and after deployment). Good implementation of LER follows along the lines of good project management. Be methodic and consistent. Rome was not built in a day. If you choose to take the do-it-yourself route, then start by getting the knowledge and help you need. You won’t find world-class lubrication in your machine’s service manual.
Closing the Knowing/Doing Gap
Sometimes you need an intervention. You can wait for a crisis to get things started, or you can start today. After all, you can’t harvest the benefits of LER until sustained implementation is in place. Opportunity knocks today. Open the door.
by Jim Fitch, Noria Corporation
The lubricant Optimum Reference State (ORS) is a critical concept in the journey to world-class lubrication and enhanced machine reliability. In short, it is the prescribed state of machine configuration, operating conditions and maintenance activities required to achieve and sustain specific reliability objectives. Lubrication excellence is achieved when the current state of lubrication approaches that of the Optimum Reference State. If you don’t understand the ORS, you probably don’t understand the most fundamental concepts in machine reliability.
Lubrication attributes of the ORS are not widely known by equipment builders, lubricant suppliers and maintenance organizations. Many user organizations falsely conclude that their machines are already fitted with the necessary accessories and components that enable reliability to be achieved. Sadly, of the hundreds of machine service manuals I’ve seen in recent years, it is rare to find practices described close to the ORS. In a typical plant, it is equally rare to see machines fitted with ORS-compliant lubrication components and technicians performing ORS-compliant lubrication.
There are many different attributes of the Optimum Reference State. These attributes relate to people preparedness, machine preparedness, precision lubricants, precision lubrication and oil analysis. Achieving the ORS almost always involves change or modifications. For instance, you can’t get optimum filtration unless you install the optimum filter. You can’t have optimum oil samples unless you install ORS-compliant sample valves in the optimum location. Then, of course, you need to pull the sample using ORS-compliant procedures at ORS-compliant frequencies.
Critical ORS Tactics
If you carefully analyze the influence of lubrication on reliability and maintenance costs, you will notice a few consistent themes. Most importantly, it becomes evident what needs to be changed to substantially enhance reliability and reduce costs. These changes define critical tactics that will eventually detail the Optimum Reference State.
First, let’s look at the six factors used to tally the costs.
- Machine reliability and performance issues: lost production, downtime, business interruption, productivity, etc.
- Maintenance costs: labor costs, replacement parts, disposables, etc.
- Lubricant costs: price per gallon and lubricant consumption rate (gallons needed per year)
- Filter costs: filter cost and filter change frequency
- Safety costs: financial and personal costs when workers get injured or there is loss of life
- Environmental costs: financial and humanity costs related to tailpipe emissions, energy consumption, oil spills, etc.
By developing a lubrication program with ORS attributes and using a few critical tactics, you can
realize the benefits of improved machine reliability and reduced costs.
Why do these things happen, and why are these costs incurred? Answering these questions is like doing a root-cause failure analysis. You have to ask the “repetitive why.” The ORS Benefits Grid (see page 4) illustrates how lubrication plays a vital role in reversing or simply reducing the impact in each of the above six cost groups. It also shows the important connection to the Optimum Reference State and a sustained state of cost control and reliability.
To see how, let’s follow the trail backward from the six cost groups. Listed across the top of the ORS Benefits Grid are six tactics that describe how ORS lubrication enables reliability and delivers benefits to an organization. These six tactics are described below:
- Lubricant Selection – There is a complex array of lubricants on the market today. Suppliers of these lubricants make wide-ranging claims on performance relating to energy consumption, reduced wear, longer oil drain intervals, etc. Precision selection and proper delivery of these lubricants to the machine plays a critical role in machine reliability and lubricant consumption cost.
- Lubricant Health – Sustaining the health of a well-selected lubricant is no trivial matter. This includes mitigating harmful exposure to the lubricant to enable its performance to last longer. It also involves knowing when to change the lubricant by carefully monitoring the remaining useful life (RUL) using oil analysis. Managing the health of the lubricant translates to an enhanced state of machine reliability.
- Contamination Control – Contamination is the No. 1 cause of lubricant-related machine failure. It is also the No. 1 cause of lubricant degradation. There are many different types of contaminants that can harm the machine and the health of the lubricant.
- Lubricant Level/Supply – Machines often fail due to too little or too much lubricant. Maintaining the correct level and supply of lubricant is vital to achieving an optimum state of machine reliability.
- Root Cause and Fault Detection – There is an endless number of root causes and faults that are precursors to machine failure. Many of these are caused by the lubricant (e.g., contamination or degraded lubricant), while others are mechanical. Either way, the lubricant is a carrier of information related to the presence of most root causes and faults. Inspection practices and lubricant analysis can provide alerts to enable problems to be corrected early.
- Safety, Waste and the Environment – Reliability issues often present safety risks. Faulty lubrication has been indicted as the root cause of countless fatalities from machine failure. Lubrication impacts the environment in many ways, from waste disposal of old lubricants to energy consumption, to waste streams from power plants and internal combustion engines.
When to Expect the Benefits
So now let’s put the process in the correct order:
- First, you develop a well-engineered lubrication program consisting of ORS attributes based on decades of learning about machine reliability.
- These attributes are critical building blocks necessary to support the tactics that fundamentally change the state of machine reliability and enable deep cost reductions. For instance, the tactics slow down the rate of machine wear and reduce lubricant consumption.
- Once the tactics are fully sustained, a transformation or metamorphosis begins to emerge. The maintenance organization is no longer a firehouse operation under constant pressure to make emergent repairs. Instead, work is managed by plans through monitoring and control. Reactive maintenance is replaced by proactive and predictive maintenance. Failure is replaced by machine reliability.
Want to get the ORS started in your plant? Begin by getting your organization trained on the fundamentals of machinery lubrication.
Essential ORS Attributes
The critical Optimum Reference State (ORS) tactics aren’t built into the DNA of most machines and maintenance organizations. They also don’t come about on their own. Instead, companies must reinvent and modernize lubrication to create a state of preparedness and condition readiness that enables lubrication excellence. This is a prescription for the ORS. Let’s take a look at some of these reliability-enabling attributes relating to lubrication:
- People Preparedness – People are trained to modern lubrication skill standards and have certified competencies.
- Machine Preparedness – Machines have the necessary design and accouterments for quality inspection, lubrication, contamination control, oil sampling, etc.
- Precision Lubricants – Lubricants are correctly selected across key physical, chemical and performance properties, including base oil, viscosity, additives, film strength, oxidation stability, etc.
- Precision Lubrication – Lubrication procedures, frequencies, amounts, locations, etc., are precisely designed to achieve the reliability objectives.
- Oil Analysis – This includes optimal selection of the oil analysis lab, test slate, sampling frequency, alarm limits, troubleshooting rationale, etc.